Cross-Layer RaCM Design for Vertically Integrated Wireless Networks
Pileggi, Paolo (2009) Cross-Layer RaCM Design for Vertically Integrated Wireless Networks. MSc, Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town.
IEEE 802.16 wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN) technology is an improvement on its wireless local area network (WLAN) counterpart, namely IEEE 802.11, in that it provides longer range and higher bandwidth capabilities. More importantly, it specifies a connection-oriented medium access control layer (MAC) and scheduling services to support quality of service (QoS) in IEEE 802.16 networks. However, in the standard, scheduling and connection admission control (CAC) mechanisms are left unspecified, leaving this for network operators to decide. This allows implementers to create market and performance advantages, making it a rich field of research and performance analysis.
Typically, researchers studying scheduling and admission control in such wireless networks consider these resource and connection management (RaCM) algorithms in isolation: They investigate (1) schedulers while fixing the admission control processes or using static connection scenarios and (2) admission controllers while fixing the scheduling processes.
We hypothesize that there exists an interdependent relationship between RaCM components which is an essential aspect to cross-layer inter-RaCM algorithm design.
In order to prove our hypothesis that you cannot consider the scheduler and the CAC in isolation, where it involves the performance of IEEE 802.16 networks, we require a performance model: Analytic modelling is an ideal solution but the system is far too complex. Experimental test beds are expensive, making hardware experimentation another impractical solution. The only other feasible solution is simulation.
General simulation environments, such as NS2 and OMNeT++, offer IEEE 802.16 libraries and some degree of development community support. However, for several reasons, as we shall discuss, we developed our own deep simulator – a discrete-event simulation model of an IEEE vertically integrated wireless Internet scenario. In particular, we concentrate our effort on the fixed IEEE 802.16 WMAN (802.16-2004), simulating admission control and scheduling processes exactly.
Both the machine model and workload model play an integral part in obtaining useful performance data: Our machine model includes particular MAC and physical layer (PHY) functions of the standard, such as framing, adaptive modulation and coding, fragmentation, and so on, as well as the admission control and scheduling algorithms. For the workload model, we developed a Markov Modulated Arrival Process (MMAP) by combining existing traffic models of different Internet applications, such as VoIP, P2P, etc. Each application is associated with one of the IEEE 802.16 traffic categories (TCs). The MMAP generates both connection– and packet level data, maintaining traffic volume ratios, as reported by previous studies of Internet application traffic volumes.
Performance metrics of delay and jitter are calculated per TC connection. This allows a comparison of the quality of experience (QoE) of an individual user for the duration of a connection. At the connection level, we report the blocking probability.
By simulating the RaCM with various admission control and scheduling configurations, we were able to show that there is a significant difference in performance when using different CAC and scheduler combinations. Although hardly surprising, it is still proof that one cannot simply consider either in isolation, as is done in various performance studies reported in the literature. This interdependent relationship should be considered when designing complementary admission control and scheduling algorithms.
|EPrint Type:||Electronic Thesis or Dissertation|
|Subjects:||C Computer Systems Organization: C.2 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS|
|Deposited By:||Suleman, Hussein|
|Deposited On:||05 December 2011|